A Brief History of Psychology Contrast the field of psychology with other scientific fields. Differentiate the major perspectives in the field of psychology.
The procedures that avoided erroneous conclusions and which lead to the truth came to be called the scientific method. These methods of science are best seen as conventions that have evolved through the pressure brought about by a primary emphasis on truth and understanding.
When you have something important at stake you demand truth. I flip; you call heads while it is in the air; it lands, I cover it, sneak a look, call it tails, and quickly put it in my pocket.
You would not pay. You would demand that you see an outcome before believing it or you would require that trustworthy people see an outcome and report it to you. If you are uncertain about something that is personally important, you appeal to direct observation as your final arbiter.
It is what you can experience for yourself that ultimately determines what you accept as truth. If someone tells you something, you assess its truth by asking whether or not you can experience it directly or indirectly; whether there are several lines of evidence supporting it; whether the information is consistent with information from several other sources which are generally reliable or whether the information is consistent with what you already know.
When this informal notion of appealing to direct observation is used in an explicit, open, and consistent fashion, it is called the scientific method.
Science is only one of many ways of viewing the world. However it should be realized that science, which specifically rejects "trying to do good" has produced more good than any other system. It seems that being concerned with truth and understanding has the side effect of producing "good.
There is occasional resistance to the idea that psychology can be scientific. This resistance is based in a belief that behavior can never be understood, i. This objection typically takes one of two forms: This latter view is typically argued most vociferously, of course, by people who think that they have that "special" skill.
The objections to scientific psychology are obviously not true when one considers the many professions that exist because of their ability to routinely change behavior on command, such as advertising, public relations, entertainment, education, and politics. However, even if the objections to the comprehendibility of behavior are partly true we should get on with understanding what we can understand, and not be stultified by what at best is only a half truth or a rumor.
We should assume that we can have an impact on behavior unless proven otherwise. The Challenge If I were to ask you to list five good things about lynching someone, you would, after the shock of the apparent oxymoron wore off, put down that it is quick, inexpensive, requires no difficult or complex preparation, and that those who do it claim that it is appropriate, the best thing possible, and that they enjoy it because they are helping society.
If I were to ask you to list 5 bad things about civil law, you would point out that it is slow, expensive, requires a lot of preparation and work, and is stressful because it must be done right and is not always fun.
The challenge faced by someone interested in justice is an analog to that faced by a psychologist. We can do to our readers and patients what feels intuitively satisfying and what does not require taking difficult courses or we can become properly prepared at whatever the cost and do the most scientific thing possible.
In criminal justice, no one argues that the easy path lynching is better than the hard path civil law. We should be equally offended when someone in psychology wants to do things in some particular way simply because it is the easiest way to graduate and has the least homework.
The following step by step explicit reasoning shows that science is relevant and even essential to psychologists involved in either the application of psychology psychotherapy or to the discovery of new behavioral principles research. What You Accept as Your Obligation The first step in building a logical foundation for your practice of psychology is to decide what is at the heart of your system of wants, beliefs or values.
An onus is the most primitive or most basic demand a person feels obliged to meet, even if it is not fun and even if it is not easy. Generally these are obligations so basic as to require no justification. Is there any reason for you to do anything other than the easiest, fastest, simplest most natural thing that any year old already goes?
Is there any reason to know anything more than you already do or to behave any differently? Instances of the First Type of Onus People Typically Accept The following set includes some of the typical things that people consider obligatory.
You would want to read a maximally revealing paper that helps you understand what processes actually occurred. Greatest Good for Greatest Number In complex situations where no simple "completely right" versus "completely wrong" decision can be made, a maximizing rule only makes sense.Apr 09, · At psychology’s beginning there were only a few foundations of psychology, but through further understanding and knowledge more foundations developed.
Through psychology, human behavior can be understood through the major schools of thought in psychology.
The primary biological foundations of psychology link behaviors. Foundations of Psychology Foundations of Psychology Jacob Wilkins PSY July 29th Genevieve Molina Abstract A large part of psychology is devoted to discovering and treating mental health issues, but that's just the beginning when it comes to applications for psychology.
The ethical foundation of psychology therefore hinges on truly understanding the nature of behavior, truly understanding the problem at hand, truly understanding the best solution and truly understanding the best way to accomplish the solution. At Foundation Psychology Victoria we use evidence-based therapies tailored to our clients’ needs to achieve the best outcomes.
Psychotherapy is a collaborative treatment based on the relationship between an individual and a psychologist. Through building a trusting partnership and a supportive environment you and your psychologist will work. Foundations of Psychology Psychology is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior.
There is some tension between scientific psychology (with its program of empirical research) and applied psychology (dealing with a number of areas). Foundations of Psychology is a new edition of the bestselling introductory psychology textbook written by the acclaimed Nicky Hayes.
This text is consistently praised for its accessible yet comprehensive coverage, its clarity and the real world examples that are used to explain pfmlures.coms: 1.